Frequently Asked Questions

The sino-atrial (SA) node is responsible for initiating and regulating the heartbeat. It is located in the right atrium of the heart, near the opening of the superior vena cava.

SA node is known as the natural pacemaker of the heart due to its unique properties of automaticity and rhythmicity. The SA node contains specialised cells that spontaneously generate electrical impulses, which then spread throughout the heart, leading to coordinated contractions of the atria and ventricles.

Additionally, the SA node has the highest rate of automaticity among all the cardiac tissues, meaning that it has the greatest ability to spontaneously generate electrical impulses. This, combined with its location at the centre of the heart’s electrical conduction system, allows it to control the rate and rhythm of the heartbeat.

After a heart attack, the main concern is reducing the risk of another heart attack or stroke. This typically involves making lifestyle changes (such as quitting smoking, eating a healthy diet, and exercising regularly), taking medications as prescribed, and closely monitoring heart health. Additionally, it may involve treating underlying conditions, such as high blood pressure or diabetes that increase the risk of heart disease.

The human heart has four valves. They are the tricuspid valve, pulmonary valve, mitral valve, and aortic valve. Each of these valves plays a crucial role in controlling the flow of blood within the heart and to the rest of the body.

Exercise results in increased demand of blood supply to the body and results in increased heart rate and respiratory rate and therefore rarely can cause symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, but this does not necessarily mean that it is causing harm to your heart or has resulted from any heart condition.  It is also possible that these symptoms may be related to other factors such as underlying heart conditions, improper exercise technique, or overtraining. If you are experiencing heart symptoms during or after exercise, it’s important to see a doctor for a proper evaluation to determine the cause and ensure your health and safety.

Although heart disease is often thought of as a problem for older individuals or those with lifestyle risk factors, it can affect people of all ages, including young and physically fit women. While regular exercise and a healthy lifestyle can reduce the risk of heart disease, it is not a guarantee as other factors such as family history, genetics, and pre-existing health conditions do also play a role.

Therefore, it is important for all individuals, including younger women, to be aware of their risk for heart disease and to have regular check-ups with a doctor, especially if they have any symptoms or concerns. Early detection and management of heart disease can lead to better outcomes and improved quality of life.

Heart Attack

During a heart attack, blood flow to the heart is blocked, often by a blood clot or a buildup of plaque in the arteries.

Cardiac Arrest

In cardiac arrest, the heart stops beating and needs to be restarted. Immediate CPR is needed to save life.

Heart Failure

Heart failure occurs when the heart muscle fails to pump as much blood as the body needs. It is usually a long-term, chronic condition, but it may come on suddenly.

Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a sudden, unexpected death. A loss of heart function (sudden cardiac arrest) causes it. When you have a sudden cardiac arrest, your body’s organs can’t receive any oxygen. Without immediate help to get oxygen to your brain and other vital organs, this is fatal.

Tests you may have to diagnose heart failure include:

  • Blood tests – to check whether there’s anything in your blood that might indicate heart failure or another illness
  • An electrocardiogram (ECG) – this records the electrical activity of your heart to check for problems
  • An echocardiogram – a type of ultrasound scan where sound waves are used to examine your heart
  • Breathing tests – you may be asked to blow into a tube to check whether a lung problem is contributing to your breathlessness; common tests include spirometry and a peak flow test
  • A chest X-ray – to check whether your heart’s bigger than it should be, whether there’s fluid in your lungs (a sign of heart failure), or whether a lung condition could be causing your symptoms
Chest discomfort related to a heart attack or another heart problem may be described by or associated with one or more of the following:
  • Pressure, fullness, burning or tightness in your chest
  • Crushing or searing pain that spreads to your back, neck, jaw, shoulders, and one or both arms
  • Pain that lasts more than a few minutes, gets worse with activity, goes away and comes back, or varies in intensity
  • Shortness of breath
  • Cold sweats
  • Dizziness or weakness
  • Nausea or vomiting

A problem which occurs, when blood vessels that carry oxygen and nutrients from the heart to the rest of the body (arteries) become thick and stiff due to calcium and fat containing substance called plaque buildup inside the arteries. And also causes restricting blood flow to the organs and tissues.

Coronary Artery Bypass surgery provides the best symptom relief to patients who have triple vessel disease or significant blockages. It also increases a patient’s survival. It is the treatment of choice for the patients who have significant left main coronary artery disease (LMCAD), Proximal or Ostial LAD Disease, weak heart due to coronary artery disease or who have diabetes mellitus.

Yes, Coronary Artery bypass (CABG) surgery is an ideal solution for patients having left main coronary artery disease (LMCAD), left ventricular dysfunction and patients with diabetes.

Bypass Surgery definitely improves the quality of life by increasing best symptom relief and it enhances patient survival.

Nowadays, with the advances in surgical techniques, ICU Monitoring and better medications, open heart surgery is not painful at all. Most of the patients feel freedom from pain and are enabled to do chest physiotherapy, which enhances their recovery.

Open Heart Surgery provides symptom control to the patients and they are able to live a productive and useful life. The quality of life improves and in many cases their survival rate is also increasing.

With advances in surgical techniques, intensive care and proper medications, risk of bypass surgery in many cases is less than 1%. The most important thing to understand is that the risk of keeping the disease in critical blockages is very high and having bypass surgery increases the survival rates for patients. Also, bypass surgery reduces the sudden cardiac death.

Yes, two or multiple arterial graft is possible and recommended because arterial grafts have better longevity. So arterial grafts are done using either both mammary arteries from the chest or from radial artery from hand.

Nowadays, with advances in surgical techniques and advanced patient care, most of the patients stay for a short duration of time in hospitals (approximately 4 to 5 days) and are able to resume their normal lives. Most of the patients are able to resume their jobs from 2nd or 3rd week, depending on the effort of individuals. Although internal healing continues till 3rd to 6th months.

LAD- left anterior descending artery, is known as artery of sudden death. This artery is most important as it supply blood to myocardial.

Open-Heart surgery is used for operations that need an artificial heart lung machine. An artificial Heart Lung Machine temporarily takes over the function of the heart and lungs during surgery. Most of the valve repairs and replacement operations on the holes of the heart were done by this way.

Nowadays Bypass (CABG) surgery is done by beating heart, artificial heart lung machine is not required. Special stabilizers are used to assist the operation. Therefore, bypass surgery is not open-heart surgery.