Other Complex Congenital Heart Diseases

There are several other complex congenital heart diseases. These include the following:

  • Patient ductus arteriosus (PDA): This is often seen in premature infants and occurs when the normal closure of the ductus arteriosus does not occur. It may lead to flooding of the lungs with extra blood, rapid breathing and poor weight gain.
  • Tricuspid atresia: In this condition there is no blood flow from the right atrium to the right ventricle due to the non-formation of the tricuspid valve. It is characterised by poor blood flow to the lungs and a bluish colour of the skin caused by lack of oxygen.
  • Pulmonary atresia: This defect comprises an underdeveloped pulmonary valve or artery. Due to this the valve leaflets cannot open properly preventing the blood flow from the right ventricle to the lungs.
  • Transposition of the great arteries: In this the positions of aorta and pulmonary artery are reversed. This causes the oxygen-poor blood returning to the heart to be pumped back without going to the lungs. Oxygen-rich blood from the lungs also returns back to the lungs.
  • Double outlet right ventricle (DORV): This is a complex heart defect in which both the pulmonary artery and aorta are connected to the right ventricle.
  • Coarctation of the aorta (CoA): In CoA the aorta is constricted or narrowed which obstructs the blood flow to the body’s lower part and increases the blood pressure above the constriction.
  • Aortic stenosis (AS): In this condition the aortic valve is not formed properly between the aorta and left ventricle and is narrowed, making it difficult for the heart to pump blood to the body.