Indications for CABG

Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) is a surgical procedure used to treat coronary artery disease (CAD), a condition where the blood vessels that supply the heart muscle with oxygen and nutrients become narrowed or blocked. CABG is typically considered in the following indications:

  • Severe Coronary Artery Disease (CAD): CABG is often recommended when multiple coronary arteries are significantly narrowed or blocked, restricting blood flow to the heart muscle. It is a preferred option for patients with complex or diffuse CAD.
  • Angina (Chest Pain) Not Responding to Medications: When angina (chest pain) is not effectively controlled with medications or other interventions and the quality of life is significantly affected, the aim of CABG is to enhance blood flow to the heart.
  • Left Main Coronary Artery Disease: CABG is frequently recommended for patients with significant blockages in the left main coronary artery, as this vessel supplies a large portion of the heart. These blockages can pose a high risk of major cardiac events if left untreated.
  • Failed Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI): If a patient has undergone PCI (angioplasty and stent placement) but experiences recurrent blockages or complications, CABG may be considered a more durable and effective solution.
  • Multi-vessel Coronary Artery Disease: CABG is often preferred for patients with blockages in multiple coronary arteries, especially if they are not amenable to PCI or if the likelihood of complete revascularization is low with angioplasty.
  • Diabetes with Coronary Artery Disease: Patients with diabetes often have more diffuse and extensive coronary artery disease. CABG may be favored over PCI in diabetic patients as it has been associated with better long-term outcomes in this population.
  • Reduced Left Ventricular Function: CABG may be considered in patients with reduced left ventricular function (ejection fraction) when medical therapy alone is insufficient to improve symptoms and prognosis.
  • Unstable Angina or Acute Coronary Syndrome: In certain cases of unstable angina or acute coronary syndrome, CABG may be performed as an emergency procedure to address severe blockages and stabilize the patient’s condition.
  • Complex Coronary Anatomy: CABG is often considered when the coronary anatomy is complex, involving multiple lesions, calcified vessels, or other factors that make PCI technically challenging or less likely to provide complete and durable revascularization.

The decision for CABG is typically made in collaboration between a cardiac surgeon, an interventional cardiologist, and other members of the heart team. It is crucial to consider the patient’s overall health, preferences, and the specific characteristics of their coronary artery disease when determining the most appropriate course of action.

How Heart Disease and Autoimmune Disorders related

Heart disease and autoimmune disorders can be related through various mechanisms, and the relationship between them is complex. Here are some ways in which they may be connected:

1. Inflammation:

Autoimmune disorders often involve chronic inflammation as the immune system attacks the body’s own tissues. Inflammation plays a critical role in the development and progression of atherosclerosis, a condition where plaque builds up in the arteries, potentially leading to heart disease.

2. Autoimmune Myocarditis:

Some autoimmune disorders can directly affect the heart muscle. For instance, autoimmune myocarditis involves inflammation of the heart muscle, and conditions like rheumatoid arthritis and lupus have been linked to an increased risk of myocarditis.

3. Vasculitis:

Certain autoimmune disorders, such as systemic vasculitis, can affect blood vessels. Vasculitis can lead to inflammation and damage to the blood vessel walls, potentially impacting blood flow to the heart and contributing to cardiovascular complications.

4. Shared Risk Factors:

Both autoimmune disorders and heart disease may share common risk factors. For example, smoking, obesity, and a sedentary lifestyle can contribute to both autoimmune disorders and heart disease.

5. Autoimmune Diseases with Cardiovascular Involvement:

Some autoimmune diseases specifically involve the cardiovascular system. For instance, antiphospholipid syndrome is an autoimmune disorder that can cause blood clots, affect the arteries and veins, and increase the risk of heart attacks and strokes.

6. Treatment Effects:

Medications used to treat autoimmune disorders, such as corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs, may have cardiovascular side effects or affect traditional cardiovascular risk factors.

7. Genetic Factors:

There may be shared genetic factors that predispose individuals to both autoimmune disorders and heart disease. It’s important to note that while these connections exist, not everyone with an autoimmune disorder will develop heart disease, and vice versa. Additionally, the relationship between autoimmune disorders and heart disease can vary depending on the specific autoimmune condition.

Patients with autoimmune disorders should be monitored for cardiovascular risk factors, and healthcare providers may need to collaborate to provide comprehensive care. This often involves coordination between rheumatologists, cardiologists, and other specialists to address both the autoimmune component and potential cardiovascular implications. Regular check-ups, a healthy lifestyle, and appropriate medical management are essential for individuals with both autoimmune disorders and heart disease risk factors.

Genetics and Heart Disease

Genetics and heart disease are intricately connected, and the field of study that explores this relationship is known as cardiovascular genetics. Genetics refers to the study of genes and their role in heredity and variation in living organisms. Heart disease encompasses a range of conditions that affect the heart and blood vessels, including coronary artery disease, heart failure, arrhythmias, and congenital heart defects.

Here are key points regarding genetics and heart disease:

  1. Genetic Influence: Genetic factors can contribute to an individual’s susceptibility to heart disease. Certain genetic variations may increase the risk of developing specific cardiovascular conditions.
  2. Family History: A family history of heart disease is a significant risk factor. If close relatives, such as parents or siblings, have had heart disease, heart attacks, or related conditions, it may indicate a genetic predisposition.
  3. Heritability: Heritability refers to the proportion of the variation in a trait or condition that can be attributed to genetic factors. Although genetics are important in developing heart disease, environmental and lifestyle factors also play a role.
  4. Monogenic Disorders: Mutations in a single gene can cause certain forms of heart disease. These are known as monogenic disorders. An example is familial hypercholesterolemia, a genetic condition leading to high cholesterol levels and an increased risk of atherosclerosis.
  5. Polygenic Risk: Most cases of heart disease are polygenic, meaning they result from the combined effects of multiple genetic variations. These variations may interact with each other and with environmental factors.
  6. Genetic Testing: Genetic testing can identify specific genetic variations associated with heart disease. This can be particularly useful in identifying certain hereditary conditions and guiding personalized medical management.
  7. Common Genetic Variations: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified common genetic variations associated with an increased risk of heart disease. These variations are often involved in lipid metabolism, inflammation, blood pressure regulation, and other cardiovascular processes.
  8. Gene-Environment Interaction: Genetics and environmental factors interact in influencing heart health. For example, a genetic predisposition to high cholesterol may interact with a diet high in saturated fats, leading to an increased risk of atherosclerosis.
  9. Prevention and Management: Understanding the genetic components of heart disease can contribute to more targeted prevention and management strategies. Individuals with a higher genetic risk may benefit from more vigilant monitoring and early interventions.

According to Dr. Ramji MehrotraVice Chairman – Cardiothoracic & Vascular Surgery, it’s important to note that while genetics plays a role, lifestyle factors such as diet, exercise, smoking, and stress management are crucial in preventing and managing heart disease. A comprehensive approach that considers both genetic and environmental factors is essential for understanding and addressing an individual’s risk of heart disease. Regular medical check-ups and discussions with healthcare providers can help assess and manage cardiovascular risk effectively.

Aging and Heart Disease

Aging and Heart Disease are interconnected in several ways. As individuals age, their chances of developing heart disease increase. Aging is associated with various physiological changes that can affect the cardiovascular system. Here are some key points to consider regarding heart disease and aging:

Atherosclerosis: Aging often leads to the accumulation of fatty deposits (plaque) in the arteries, a condition known as atherosclerosis. This buildup can narrow and stiffen the arteries, reducing blood flow to the heart and increasing the risk of heart disease.

Blood Vessel Changes: With aging, blood vessels may become less flexible and more prone to stiffness. This can contribute to high blood pressure (hypertension), which is a significant risk factor for heart disease.

Heart Muscle Changes: The heart undergoes changes with age, including a gradual thickening of the heart walls and a decrease in the elasticity of the heart chambers. These changes may affect the heart’s ability to pump blood efficiently.

Collagen Accumulation: Collagen, a protein that provides structure to various tissues, accumulates in the heart with age. This can contribute to the stiffening of the heart muscle and impaired cardiac function.

Inflammation: Chronic low-grade inflammation is associated with aging and is also a factor in the development of heart disease. Inflammatory processes can contribute to the progression of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular issues.

Metabolic Changes: Changes in metabolism, such as alterations in lipid (fat) profiles and glucose metabolism, are common with aging. These changes can influence the development of conditions such as diabetes and metabolic syndrome, which are risk factors for heart disease.

Genetic and Environmental Factors: Both genetic and environmental factors play a role in the development of heart disease. Aging individuals may have a combination of genetic predispositions and a lifetime of exposure to various risk factors, such as a poor diet, a sedentary lifestyle, and smoking.

Hormonal Changes: Hormonal changes, especially in postmenopausal women, can contribute to an increased risk of heart disease. Estrogen, which has cardioprotective effects, decreases with age and menopause.

Lifestyle Factors: Healthy lifestyle choices, such as a balanced diet, regular physical activity, maintaining a healthy weight, and avoiding smoking, can help mitigate the risk of heart disease even as individuals age.

Medical Monitoring and Management: Regular medical check-ups and monitoring of blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and other cardiovascular risk factors are crucial, especially as people age. Timely intervention and management of risk factors can help prevent or delay the onset of heart disease.

It’s important to note that while aging is a non-modifiable risk factor, adopting a healthy lifestyle and managing other risk factors can significantly influence heart health and reduce the impact of age-related changes on the cardiovascular system. Regular consultation with healthcare professionals is essential for monitoring and managing cardiovascular health, especially in older individuals.


Atherosclerosis is a progressive condition in which the arteries become narrowed and hardened due to the buildup of plaque on their inner walls. Here is a more detailed explanation of the key aspects of atherosclerosis:

Plaque Formation: The process begins with damage to the inner lining (endothelium) of an artery. High blood pressure, smoking, high levels of cholesterol and triglycerides, and inflammation are some of the factors that can cause this damage. The endothelium’s damage causes the accumulation of substances like low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and white blood cells at the site of injury.

Inflammatory Response: The immune system responds to the accumulation of these substances by initiating an inflammatory response. This causes the formation of fatty streaks, which are the early stages of plaque development.

Plaque Growth: Over time, the fatty streaks can progress into more complex plaques. These plaques consist of a core of cholesterol, calcium deposits, and other substances covered by a fibrous cap. As the plaque grows, it can protrude into the arterial lumen, narrowing the blood vessel.

Arterial Narrowing and Hardening: The accumulation of plaque leads to the narrowing of the arteries, reducing blood flow to organs and tissues. The plaque can also harden and calcify, making the arteries less elastic.

Reduced Blood Flow and Ischemia: As the arteries become progressively narrowed, the blood flow to vital organs and tissues decreases. This reduced blood flow can result in ischemia, which is an insufficient supply of oxygen and nutrients to the affected tissues.

Clinical Consequences: The consequences of atherosclerosis depend on the location of the affected arteries. If it occurs in the coronary arteries, it can lead to coronary artery disease and may result in angina (chest pain) or a heart attack. Atherosclerosis in the arteries supplying the brain can lead to cerebrovascular disease and increase the risk of stroke. In the peripheral arteries, it can cause peripheral artery disease, affecting the limbs and causing symptoms such as pain and difficulty walking.

Risk Factors and Prevention: Risk factors for atherosclerosis include high blood pressure, smoking, high cholesterol levels, diabetes, obesity, and a sedentary lifestyle. Prevention and management strategies involve adopting a healthy lifestyle, including regular exercise, a balanced diet, maintaining a healthy weight, managing blood pressure and cholesterol levels, and avoiding smoking.

Treatment approaches may include lifestyle modifications, medications to control risk factors, and, in some cases, invasive procedures such as angioplasty or bypass surgery to address severely blocked arteries. Early detection and management are crucial in preventing the progression of atherosclerosis and its associated complications.

Heart Transplantation Procedure

A heart transplant is a complex surgical procedure that involves replacing a diseased or failing heart with a healthy donor heart. Here’s an overview of the typical steps involved in a heart transplant procedure:

Patient Evaluation:

Before a heart transplant, a thorough evaluation of the patient’s medical history, current health status, and overall suitability for the procedure is conducted. This includes assessments of the patient’s heart function, other organ functions, and overall health.

Placement on the Transplant List:

If the patient is deemed a suitable candidate for a heart transplant, they are placed on a waiting list for a donor heart. The allocation of donor organs is based on factors such as blood type, body size, and medical urgency.

Waiting for a Donor:

Patients awaiting a heart transplant must often wait for a suitable donor heart. This waiting period can vary depending on factors such as the patient’s blood type, geographic location, and the availability of donor organs.

Donor Organ Retrieval:

Once a suitable donor heart becomes available, a surgical team is dispatched to retrieve the heart from the donor. The donor heart is carefully preserved and transported to the recipient’s hospital.

Recipient Surgery Preparation:

The recipient is prepared for surgery. This involves ensuring that the patient is in optimal condition for the transplant and ready to receive the donor heart.


The actual transplant surgery begins with the removal of the recipient’s diseased or failing heart. The donor heart is then implanted, and the surgical team connects the blood vessels and the heart’s chambers to ensure proper blood flow.


Following the surgery, the patient is closely monitored in the intensive care unit (ICU) for several days to weeks. This period is critical for assessing the success of the transplant and managing potential complications.

Post-Transplant Care:

After leaving the ICU, the patient continues to receive post-transplant care, including medications to prevent organ rejection. Regular follow-up appointments with the transplant team are crucial for long-term monitoring and adjustments to the treatment plan.

It’s important to note that heart transplant surgery is a major undertaking with associated risks and complications. The success of the procedure depends on various factors, including the overall health of the patient, the compatibility of the donor organ, and the expertise of the surgical and medical teams. Patients who undergo heart transplants often require lifelong medical care and immunosuppressive medications to prevent rejection of the transplanted organ.

Heart Health Precautions during the Winter

Maintaining heart health during the winter is important, as colder temperatures can affect the cardiovascular system. Here are some precautions to help promote heart health during the winter:

Stay Active:

Exercise regularly, even during the winter. Consider outdoor activities like walking, swimming. If you exercise outdoors, dress in layers to stay warm, and be cautious of icy conditions.

Keep Warm:

Dress in layers to stay warm, especially if you’re going outside. Cold temperatures can cause blood vessels to constrict, raising blood pressure. Wearing warm clothing helps to maintain body heat and prevent this. Avoid sudden change of temperature.

Stay Hydrated:

It’s easy to forget to drink enough water during the colder months, but staying hydrated is crucial for heart health. Dry winter air can also contribute to dehydration.

Maintain a Healthy Diet:

Eat a balanced and heart-healthy diet. Include plenty of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean proteins. Limit the intake of saturated and fats, sodium, and added sugars.

Manage Stress:

Practice stress-reduction techniques, as stress can impact heart health. Consider activities like meditation, deep breathing exercises, or yoga to manage stress levels.

Stay Warm Indoors:

Cold indoor temperatures can also affect your cardiovascular system. Keep your home at a comfortable temperature, and use blankets if needed. Avoid prolonged exposure to cold indoor environments.

Take precautions when shoveling snow.

If you need to shovel snow, take breaks and lift small amounts at a time to avoid putting too much strain on your heart. If you have cardiovascular issues, consult your doctor before shoveling snow.

Keep up with medications:

If you’re on medications for heart-related conditions, continue taking them as prescribed. If you have concerns or experience any side effects, consult your healthcare provider.

Stay Informed:

Be aware of weather conditions, especially extreme cold or winter storms. Plan accordingly and avoid unnecessary exposure to severe/extreme weather conditions.

Get Vaccinated:

Influenza (flu) and other respiratory infections are more common during the winter. Consider getting vaccinated to reduce the risk of these illnesses, which can put extra stress on the heart.

Regular Check-ups:

Schedule regular check-ups with your healthcare provider. This is especially important if you have pre-existing cardiovascular conditions. Regular monitoring can help catch potential issues early.

Always consult with your healthcare provider before making significant changes to your lifestyle or if you have specific concerns about your heart health, especially during the winter months. They can provide personalized advice based on your individual health status.( Personalized advice can be given according to your specific health status.)

Always consult with your healthcare provider before making significant changes to your lifestyle or if you have specific concerns about your heart health, especially during the winter months. They can provide personalized advice based on your individual health status.( Personalized advice can be given according to your specific health status.)

Schedule regular check-ups with your healthcare provider. This is especially important if you have pre-existing cardiovascular conditions. Regular monitoring can help catch potential issues early.

Air Pollution & Heart Disease

Air pollution is considered to be a silent killer that affects our daily lives. From the exhaust fumes of vehicles to industrial emissions and even natural sources like dust storms, the air we breathe is often contaminated with many harmful particles and gases. While we often associate respiratory problems with air pollution, its impact on heart health is equally concerning.

Effect of Air Pollution on the Heart

Particulate matter (PM) and gaseous pollutants are known to cause great harm to the cardiovascular system. Fine particulate matter, known as PM2.5, consists of tiny particles less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter. These minuscule particles can penetrate deep into the lungs and even enter the bloodstream. Once the particles enter the bloodstream, they can trigger a cascade of reactions that contribute to the development and progression of heart disease.

  1. Inflammation: PM2.5 and other pollutants can induce inflammation in the arteries. Inflammatory responses can lead to the buildup of plaque in the arteries, a condition known as atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis narrows the arteries and restricts blood flow to the heart, increasing the risk of heart attacks and strokes.
  2. Blood pressure: Air pollution has been linked to increased blood pressure. Over time, elevated blood pressure can strain the heart and lead to conditions like hypertension and hypertensive heart disease. These conditions make the heart work harder and can result in heart failure.
  3. Irregular heart rhythms: Some studies have suggested that air pollution may contribute to irregular heart rhythms, known as arrhythmias. These irregular heartbeats can be life-threatening, especially in individuals with pre-existing heart conditions.
  4. Heart attacks: The risk of heart attacks, or myocardial infarctions, is significantly higher in areas with high levels of air pollution. Pollutants can trigger the rupture of existing plaques in the arteries, leading to blood clots that can block blood flow to the heart muscle.
  5. Heart failure: Air pollution can aggravate existing heart conditions, such as heart failure, by increasing the workload on the heart. Heart failure occurs when the heart cannot pump blood effectively, leading to a buildup of fluid in the lungs and other tissues.

Who Is at Risk?

Leading cardiovascular surgeon Dr. Ramji Mehrotra cites the example of the high levels of air pollution in New Delhi and is of the opinion that while air pollution poses a risk to everyone, certain groups are more vulnerable to its adverse effects on the heart. These include:

  1. Elderly individuals: Older adults are more likely to have pre-existing heart conditions, making them more susceptible to the harmful effects of air pollution.
  2. Children: Developing hearts in children are more sensitive to environmental stressors, including air pollution, which can have long-term implications for their heart health.
  3. People with pre-existing heart conditions: Those with conditions like coronary artery disease, hypertension, and heart failure are at greater risk of experiencing adverse cardiovascular effects from air pollution.
  4. Individuals with low socioeconomic status: People in lower-income communities often face higher exposure to air pollution due to factors like living closer to industrial areas and having limited access to healthcare resources.

Reducing the Risk

Considering the link between air pollution and heart disease, it is crucial to take steps to reduce the risk. Here are some strategies to protect your heart:

  1. Stay informed: Monitor local air quality and avoid outdoor activities on days when air pollution levels are high.
  2. Use air purifiers: Indoor air pollution can also be a concern, so using air purifiers at home can help reduce exposure to harmful particles.
  3. Reduce vehicle emissions: Carpooling, using public transportation, and driving fuel-efficient vehicles can help reduce the emissions that contribute to outdoor air pollution.
  4. Plant trees and vegetation: Greenery can act as natural air filters and improve local air quality. Supporting and participating in urban reforestation efforts can make a difference.
  5. Advocate for clean energy: Supporting policies and initiatives that promote clean energy sources and reduce emissions is essential for long-term improvement in air quality.
  6. Lead a heart-healthy lifestyle: A heart-healthy diet, regular exercise, and stress management can help mitigate the effects of air pollution on heart health.
  7. Avoid Smoking and tobacco use.


Dr. Mehrotra is of the opinion that Air Pollution is not only a threat to our respiratory health but also a silent contributor to heart disease. The tiny particles and harmful gases in polluted air can have profound and lasting effects on the cardiovascular system, increasing the risk of heart attacks, high blood pressure, and other heart-related conditions. Protecting your heart from air pollution involves a combination of individual actions, community efforts, and policy changes. By taking these steps, we can breathe easier and ensure a healthier future for our hearts.

Pediatric Heart Infections

Pediatric heart infections, although relatively rare, can have serious and potentially life-threatening consequences for children. These infections affect the heart muscle, valves, or the inner lining of the heart chambers and are often caused by bacteria, viruses, or other microorganisms. Early detection, timely treatment, and a good understanding of the risks associated with pediatric heart infections are crucial for the well-being of affected children. In this blog, Dr. Ramji Mehrotra, India’s leading pediatric cardiac surgeon, elaborates upon the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options for these infections.

Causes of Pediatric Heart Infections

  • Bacterial Endocarditis: This is one of the most common types of heart infections in children. It occurs when bacteria enter the bloodstream and attach to the heart valves or lining of the heart. Certain pre-existing heart conditions, congenital heart defects, or the use of intravenous (IV) lines and catheters can increase the risk of bacterial endocarditis.
  • Viral Myocarditis: Myocarditis is an inflammation of the heart muscle, often caused by viral infections such as enteroviruses or adenoviruses. While viral myocarditis is less common in children, it can lead to significant cardiac issues if left untreated.


The symptoms of pediatric heart infections can vary depending on the type and severity of the infection. Common symptoms include:

  • Fever: A persistent fever that doesn’t respond to regular treatments.
  • Fatigue: Unexplained tiredness or weakness.
  • Chest Pain: Discomfort especially during physical activity.
  • Rapid Breathing: Increased breathing rate, especially in infants.
  • Paleness: Pale or bluish skin, lips, or fingertips.
  • Joint Pain: Joint pain or swelling.
  • Swelling: Swelling in the legs and abdomen
  • Abnormal Heartbeat: Irregular heartbeat, known as arrhythmia.
  • Poor Feeding: Difficulty feeding in infants.
  • Weight Loss: Unintentional weight loss.
  • Irritability: Increased fussiness or irritability.


Diagnosing pediatric heart infections can be challenging because the symptoms can mimic those of other common childhood illnesses. Physicians typically use a combination of the following diagnostic tools:

  1. Physical Examination: A thorough physical examination to check for symptoms and signs of infection.
  2. Blood Tests: Blood tests to check for infection markers and the presence of microorganisms.
  3. Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG): A test that records the heart’s electrical activity to identify irregularities in the heartbeat.
  4. Echocardiogram: An ultrasound of the heart to visualize its structure and function.
  5. Chest X-rays: X-rays to assess the heart and lungs.
  6. MRI or CT Scan: These imaging tests may be used to provide detailed images of the heart.


Treatment of pediatric heart infections typically involves a combination of medical therapies and, in some cases, surgical intervention, depending on the type and severity of the infection. Common treatment options include:

  1. Antibiotics: Bacterial infections are treated with antibiotics.
  2. Antiviral Medications: Viral myocarditis may be treated with antiviral drugs.
  3. Anti-inflammatory Medications: Medications like corticosteroids may be used to reduce inflammation in the heart.
  4. Surgery: In severe cases or when complications arise, surgical intervention may be necessary. This can include repairing damaged heart valves or removing infected tissue.
  5. Supportive Care: Children with heart infections may require hospitalization for supportive care, such as intravenous fluids, pain management, and monitoring of vital signs.


According to Dr. Ramji Mehrotra, pediatric heart infections are a serious concern, but with early detection and appropriate treatment, the prognosis can be favourable. Parents and healthcare providers must be vigilant about recognizing the symptoms and risk factors associated with these infections. Additionally, maintaining good hygiene practices, ensuring proper dental care, and managing pre-existing heart conditions can help reduce the risk of pediatric heart infections. Overall, a proactive approach to heart health can make a significant difference in the well-being of children.

Minimally Invasive Direct Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

Minimally Invasive Direct Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (MIDCAB) is a less invasive surgical procedure for treating coronary artery disease (CAD). Unlike traditional coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), which requires a median sternotomy and the use of a heart-lung machine, MIDCAB is performed through a small incision on the left side of the chest, offering several advantages.

Procedure Highlights

  1. Small Incision: MIDCAB involves a small incision between the ribs, eliminating the need for a sternotomy. This results in less chest trauma and reduced postoperative pain.
  2. On-Beating Heart: Unlike traditional CABG, which temporarily stops the heart with a heart-lung machine, MIDCAB is performed on a beating heart. This reduces the risk of complications associated with bypassing the heart’s normal function.
  3. Shorter Recovery: Patients undergoing MIDCAB experience a shorter hospital stay and a faster return to their regular activities, making it an appealing option for those seeking quicker recovery.
  4. Reduced Scarring: The small incision in MIDCAB results in less visible scarring, providing cosmetic benefits for some patients.

Patient Eligibility

MIDCAB is suitable for patients with single or double-vessel disease, meaning they have blockages in one or two coronary arteries. It is not appropriate for complex multi-vessel disease requiring multiple grafts. Favorable patient anatomy and good overall health are essential for candidacy.

Procedure Steps

  1. Incision: A small incision is made between the ribs on the left side of the chest to access the target coronary artery.
  2. Graft Placement: A healthy blood vessel, often the internal mammary artery or radial artery, is harvested and prepared for grafting. It is then attached to the blocked coronary artery, creating a new pathway for blood flow.
  3. Heart Monitoring: Specialized equipment is used to monitor the heart throughout the procedure to ensure it continues to beat.
  4. Closure: After successfully placing the graft, the incision is closed, and the chest is sutured. No sternotomy is required.

Benefits and Considerations


  1. Less Invasive: MIDCAB results in reduced chest trauma, postoperative pain, and discomfort.
  2. Quicker Recovery: Patients have a faster recovery and shorter hospital stay.
  3. Cosmetic Appeal: The small incision leads to less visible scarring.


  1. Limited Applicability: MIDCAB is suitable only for patients with single or double-vessel disease.
  2. Long-Term Efficacy: Long-term outcomes compared to traditional CABG are still under investigation.
  3. Operator Skill: MIDCAB requires a highly skilled and experienced surgeon.
  4. Patient Selection: Careful patient evaluation is crucial to ensure the best outcomes.


Minimally Invasive Direct Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (MIDCAB) is an attractive option for many patients with CAD due to its less invasive nature, faster recovery, and improved cosmetic results. However, patient suitability and careful evaluation by doctors are key factors in determining the most appropriate treatment approach.

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